A Guide to Smart Contract Verification
Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with terms and conditions written directly into code. They are designed to execute automatically once certain predetermined
conditions are met. Smart contracts are typically deployed on blockchain networks, enabling secure and transparent execution of transactions without the need for
Smart contract verification refers to the process of thoroughly reviewing the smart contract's code and testing its functionality to ensure that it performs as intended in
all scenarios. Verification is a crucial step in ensuring the security and functionality of smart contracts, as errors or vulnerabilities in the code can result in significant
financial losses or other negative consequences. Verification methodologies may include directed testing, regression testing, code coverage closure, and functional
coverage closure, as well as advanced techniques such as fuzzing, metamorphic testing, constrained random testing, and formal verification.
There are several methodologies for verifying smart contracts. Some of the most common ones include directed testing, regression testing, code coverage closure, functional
coverage closure. In addition to these methodologies, there are advanced verification techniques that can be employed to further increase the confidence in the behavior of
the smart contract, including Fuzzing, Constrained Random, Metamorphic Testing, and Formal Verification. In Figure 1, x-axis shows five colored bars to represent the methodologies
of smart contract verification flow from start to deployment, and y-axis represents the corresponding verification quality achieved by each set of methodologies. The high-level
idea is to start with directed testing and move to the next methodology step-by-step. In the following, we discuss each methodology briefly.
Figure 1: Smart contract verification process
Directed testing is a method of software testing where the tests are designed and executed to verify specific aspects of the system's behavior or functionality.
In the context of smart contracts, directed testing involves manually testing the contract by providing specific inputs and examining its corresponding outputs.
The main objective of directed testing is to ensure that the smart contract behaves according to its intended design requirements and expectations. This type of
testing is typically carried out by the development team or quality assurance personnel, who create test cases, execute the contract code manually, and compare
the results with the expected outcomes. Directed testing is an important part of smart contract development as it helps to identify any potential bugs or
vulnerabilities in the contract prior to its deployment on a public blockchain network.
Regression testing is a type of software testing that is performed to ensure that changes made to a software application, such as modifications to its code or
configuration, have not introduced new errors or adversely impacted its existing functionality. In the context of smart contracts, regression testing involves
running tests on the contract after making modifications to verify that its existing functionalities are operating as expected. This includes testing previously
tested scenarios, edge cases, and crucial functionalities to ensure that the changes have not introduced any issues or violated the contract. Regression testing
helps to catch any unintended consequences of modifications to the contract code, preventing problems from occurring in the production environment.
Code coverage is a measure of the degree to which a software application's source code has been tested by its associated test suite. It is expressed as a percentage and
reflects the amount of code that has been executed by the test suite, e.g., statement coverage, branch coverage etc.
Code coverage closure is the process of determining the completeness and thoroughness of the testing performed on the code of a software application. It involves
evaluating the code coverage achieved by the associated test suite and identifying any segments of code that have not been executed or tested by the test suite. In
the context of smart contracts, code coverage and code coverage closure are essential for ensuring that the contract behaves as intended and is free from errors or
vulnerabilities. Code coverage metrics help developers to assess the quality of their smart contract code and identify areas where additional testing may be necessary
to achieve the desired level of code coverage. By achieving code coverage closure, developers can have greater confidence in the reliability and security of their
smart contracts, reducing the risk of costly errors or exploits on the blockchain.
Functional Coverage Closure:
In the context of smart contracts, functional coverage is a type of testing that ensures that a smart contract's code meets its intended functional requirements.
It is concerned with verifying that the contract behaves as expected under various conditions and scenarios, and that all of its planned functionalities have been
adequately tested. There are various approaches for measuring functional coverage, including:
- Requirements Tracing: This technique traces the functional requirements of the code to ensure that all conditions have been tested.
- Model-based testing: This method generates test cases based on a model of the contract and validates its functional coverage.
- Scenario-based testing: This method creates test cases to cover different use cases and scenarios of the contract.
Functional coverage closure in the context of smart contracts involves verifying that a smart contract's functional requirements have been completely and effectively tested.
It aims to ensure that all planned functionalities and scenarios have been tested and that the contract behaves as expected under various conditions. This process involves
analyzing the results of the tests, identifying any gaps in functional coverage, and adding additional tests or modifying existing tests to ensure that all functional
requirements have been adequately covered. The ultimate goal of functional coverage closure is to achieve a high level of confidence in the smart contract's functional
correctness before it is deployed to a public blockchain network.
Advanced Verification Techniques:
To ensure the dependability and security of smart contracts, advanced verification techniques are utilized that exceed basic testing and validation methodologies to
enhance confidence in the contract's behavior.
One of these advanced verification techniques is Fuzzing, which involves generating random or semi-random input data and feeding it into a smart contract to observe its
response and detect any bugs or vulnerabilities that may bypass traditional testing methods.
Constrained random testing is another advanced verification technique, which creates inputs randomly within the parameters of the predicted behavior of the contract and
observes its response.
Metamorphic testing is yet another advanced verification technique that creates test cases based on the code's characteristics rather than specific inputs and outputs,
to check the behavior of the contract under multiple situations and identify possible patterns or connections between inputs and outputs.
Formal verification, another advanced verification technique, utilizes automated tools and mathematical methods to verify that a smart contract performs as intended.
For smart contracts that carry out critical tasks such as financial transactions, formal verification is particularly useful in reducing the possibility of unintended harm.
To ensure the functionality and security of self-executing smart contracts, the verification process is crucial. Various verification methodologies are utilized, such as
Directed Testing, Regression Testing, Code-Coverage Closure, and Functional Coverage Closure. In addition, advanced verification techniques, including Fuzzing, Constrained
Random, Metamorphic Testing, and Formal Verification, further increase confidence in the smart contract's behavior and help identify any bugs or vulnerabilities. A comprehensive
verification of smart contracts is crucial for their successful deployment across various industries.
Truscova comes with 30+ years of academic research and hundreds of academic publications which pioneered the area of Formal Verification.
The team combines academic leadership, industrial strength and Blockchain expertise. Truscova currently analyzes Solidity code combining Formal
Verification techniques: abstract interpretation, constraint solving, theorem proving, and equivalence checking.